OVERVIEW

The Spanish Guidance System provides in principle access to educational and career guidance services for all citizens at any stage of their lives – whether they are in education or training, employed, unemployed or lifelong training. As Spain is a highly decentralised, guidance is provided by different institutions and organizations of the Central Government and of the Autonomous Communities (regions) as follows:

  • Educational system
  • Employment system
  • Social Partners: Chambers of Commerce, Employers’ Organizations and Trade Unions
  • Private organizations

Euroguidance Spain provides detailed information in the official Portal on Guidance and VET “TodoFP”, which is part of the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training webpage. 

  • Vocational and Professional Guidance can be found here
  • Guidance Webs of the Autonomous Communities are provided here.

POLICY

The Educational law “Organic law for improving Educational Quality” (LOMCE, December 2013) establishes the national legislation and defines Guidance as a student’s right, being an educational quality factor. “The educational and professional guidance as a mean to reach a personalized training which contributes to a comprehensive education in knowledge, skills and values” is one of the principles of this law.

All regional administrations are obliged to provide specific services and resources, including specialized professionals, to assure the scholastic success.

There is a common framework currently underway, which respects the responsibilities of each provider and the responsibilities of the Autonomous Communities, to optimize the results and ensure that lifelong guidance becomes a complement and support to lifelong learning.

Education authorities and schools of the Autonomous Communities (regions) have their own bodies responsible for educational, vocational and professional guidance.
Likewise, schools which provide compulsory secondary education, baccalaureate, vocational education and training, and universities have their own guidance services which offer information, support, guidance and advice.

Besides, employment authorities have their own professional guidance services which are complemented by the services in this area developed by the Social Partners (trade unions and employers’ organizations). There is also a national legislation for the employment public services.

SERVICES AND PRACTICES

Early Childhood Education

Information and guidance is primarily focused on early detection of learning problems and giving solutions for addressing them. Additionally curricula include simulation-based learning as part of students’ early training in trades and professions. For further information, please click here.

School Education

In primary and compulsory secondary school programmes and baccalaureate-programmes, knowledge about professions is introduced, as well as programmes specifically intended to generate increased interest in vocational education. Curricula include simulation-based learning as part of students´ early training in trades and professions.

In the last year of compulsory secondary education (ESO), students can choose between two study programmes, one of them more general and academic, the other more vocational-oriented. The programmes intention is to support students in making informed choices in their learning pathway by the end of the year as well as the knowledge of the labour market. For further information please click here.

Vocational training

Training programmes during the VET students’ apprenticeship period with a company, as well as the Dual VET training programme, (both compulsory workplace training modules) comprise clearly defined common elements in the curriculum, including the compulsory modules “Business and Entrepreneurship” and “Training and career guidance”. Both modules focus mainly on long life learning and aim at improving employability. For further information please click here.

Adult Learning / Longlife learning

There is a specific offer of regulated training for adults. Besides, there is a wide and diverse non-formal training accessible to all individuals. There are also special schools for adults, and open and distance learning via e-learning platforms offering courses helping virtually all students at all levels of the education system. This website is now in revision.

Higher Education

Universities in Spain provide career guidance services and you can find links and information about them here.

Employment

The Public Employment Service is an autonomous body within the Ministry for Employment, Migrations and Social Security. The service is responsible for active employment policies, as well as for information and guidance on labour issues, provide for career guidance practitioners.

TRAINING

Spanish guidance counsellors working for the education public sector are mainly psychologists or pedagogues (master’s degree) that have passed a competitive exam to become civil servants and work at public schools, with the following organization:

  • Multi-professional guidance teams, which work with students in pre-primary and primary education levels. There are also some specialized guidance teams for specific disabilities. These teams are dependent on the Regional Education Authorities of the Autonomous Communities. There are some regions that have a guidance practitioner in each school.
  • Guidance and Counselling Departments at all secondary or VET Schools, that is, at all levels of secondary education and post-secondary, Baccalaureate and vocational education and training levels. They are also dependent on the regional educational authorities, but are school-based services.
  • Students’ information centers and career guidance services are also to be found at public universities. In general private schools and universities also offer career services.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

The main topics in research are:

  • Early detection of learning difficulties ensuring students’ learning success from an early age.
  • Vocational guidance in early educational stages. Introducing vocational guidance in compulsory secondary education as part of the guidance process, so that students have all the tools and skills necessary to make informed decisions at the end of compulsory education, whether they choose to further their education or enter the workforce.
  • Vocational guidance training for all the teachers. Developing the necessary mechanisms for teacher training in vocational guidance, understanding that the teacher, especially the student´s teacher-tutor, is the closest person to the student and enjoys a credibility and influence on his/her students that makes him/her the most suitable person to perform some guidance tasks. These tasks not only correspond to personalized guidance tasks, but include encouraging and preparing students to manage their own career (Career Management Skills, CMS).
  • Continuous training for guidance professionals, so that they can meet the different needs on the target groups: students in the education system, early school leavers, students at risk of exclusion, adult job seekers, at-risk groups, vulnerable groups, minorities, and others. The aim is to reach all people regardless of age, personal situation or geographic location.
  • Updating guidance tools. Developing current, effective and efficient tools, relying on ICT to bring guidance closer to individuals or groups and widen access to all citizens.
  • Setting up a national forum on guidance that would allow the establishment of an institutional national framework for educational, vocational and professional guidance which allows cooperation between all actors involved in the field.

ETHICS

The framework and limits of the work of a guidance counsellor in the educational system are set out by the different regulations imposed by the Ministry of Education and VET through the Official publication/Regulations handbook and the regional legislations.  

Last update by ©Euroguidance Spain (January 2020)

 

 

 

Last updated at: April 2020